Architecture : The Agile Urbanism Manifesto – Critical Transhumanism – Medium

A citizen-led blueprint for smart cities, smart communities, and smart democracy

By 2050, 70% of the world’s population or 2.5 billion people will be living in cities, forcing more people to live on less land, consume more global energy, and generate more CO2 emissions. These pressures suggest new urban design infrastructures are needed to optimize functionality and effectiveness of systems (Desa, 2014).

One solution is to build smart cities — urban areas that harness information communications technologies (ICT) and networked devices (aka the Internet of Things or IoT). This citizen-led utopia is predicted to not only reduce costs but also solve many of the technical challenges related to rapid urbanization, such as traffic congestion, unsustainable resource allocation, and extreme weather events (Townsend, 2013). Smart user-led urban design systems may also deliver “smart health communities” which could help tackle some of the inequality-related epidemics harming populations worldwide such as obesity, poverty, and crime (Feliziani et al., 2014).

Despite evidence that “bottom-up” citizen-led projects provide better value and sustainability, most smart cities projects have applied top-down technocentric methods to improve city infrastructure (Lea, Blackstock, Giang, & Vogt, 2015). In addition, architectural practice suffers from a “fear of the body” which prevents architects from making investments in human-centred design. the fact human bodies are central to our environment suggests architects must accepted this reality, and develop new integral methods that encourage profitable “investments in corporeality” (Grosz, 2001, p.14).

Industrial fragmentation

Architecture’s inability to make corporeal investments is complex, but likely stems from the schizophrenic nature of practice itself. While operating outside the humanities, there is ongoing debate whether it belongs to the arts or the sciences (Cook, Llewellyn-Jones, & Norment, 1991; Grosz, 2001). This identity crisis may sound trivial to the layperson, however internal divisions have seriously impacted knowledge across the board. Not only for educators and professionals, who find design methods confused and contradictory (Dorst, 2006; Kimbell, 2009a) but also for people outside practice looking to measure its progress (Buchanan, 2001). Rather than making things better, adoption of digital open source tools has amplified fragmentation (Luke et al., 2004; Margolin, 2000), incurring great biases on the minds of architects, which has continued to disrupt decision-making within practice (Cuff, 2001; Robertson & Radcliffe, 2009).

Biased minds, biased decision-making

The idea that certain worldviews or “paradigms” bias our thoughts and actions is not new. Bias was writ large in the Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy of Ancient Greece: Apollo (god of the sun) stood for rational thinking, logic, and order; whereas Dionysus (god of wine and dance) embodied irrationality, emotions, and instinct (Nietzsche, 1967).

Ancient and Western philosophy has continued to adopt these two paradigms, either in the form of linear-based analytical thinking (e.g., Aristotle, Democritus, Bacon) or systems-based holistic thinking (e.g., Plato, Anaxagoras, Hegel, Marx), with rare examples of overlap (Brumbaugh, 1992; McKeon & Mann, 1954). Art history reflects a similar dichotomy (Figure 1) maintaining psychic tensions between the rationality of Apollo and irrationality of Dionysius (McGilchrist, 2009; Paglia, 1990). Science by contrast continually undergoes paradigm shifts, depending on the changing methods of those living within them (Kuhn, 1970).

Figure 1: Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy

Shifts in worldviews are not surprising. From a biological perspective, our brain processes sensory information differently. Split-brain studies of patients receiving a corpus callosotomy (an operation severing the bundle of nerve tissue or corpus callosum connecting brain hemispheres) confirmed the left side specializes in analytical tasks, whereas the right deals with spatial perception (Sperry, 1968). Studies of human development also show analytical process are specialized between analytical left brain and holistic right brain processes (Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, 2001; Pask, 1976; Witkin, Moore, Goodenough, & Cox, 1977). Differences also appear to occur across genders, with men favouring left side verbal reasoning, and women using left and right areas to map emotional, verbal, and visual cues (Frederikse, Lu, Aylward, Barta, & Pearlson, 1999). Radical changes to our environment also biases thoughts and actions over time (Doidge & Bond, 2008; McLuhan, 1964).

Within architecture, construction methods during the Medieval Age meant architects had no sense of the scale or wholeness of building (Pérez-Gómez, Gómez, & Pelletier, 2000). Guttenberg printing during the Renaissance meant architects generated ideas via perspectival drawings (Evans, 1995; Pérez-Gómez et al., 2000). Mechanical clocks in the Industrial Age destroyed natural circadian cycles and individuality (Mumford, 1934). Mechanical reproduction in the Modern Age sparked cultures of distraction as a result of people’s nervous systems attempting to filter out noise (Benjamin, 2008; Kracauer & Levin, 1987; McLuhan, 1964; Selye, 1956). Personal computing during our current Digital Age has ultimately reduced human thought to information processing (Weizenbaum, 1976) and nature itself as data to be processed (Postman, 1993).

The scientification of architecture

To render architecture more scientific and less susceptible to biased thinking, leaders at the 1956 Oxford Conference of Architectural Education introduced Design Science into the curriculum (Glanville, 1999). The role of Design Science was to apply a systematic and rational approach to design thinking by breaking problems down into small parts and synthesizing them into grand solutions (Alexander, 1964; Fuller & McHale, 1967). To do this, Design Science drew heavily from the world of artificial intelligence (AI) in order to clarify “existing situations” and manipulate them towards “preferred ones” (Jones, 1992; Simon, 1969). These rationalist methods have been further amplified with the rise of digital computing tools and networks (Lawson, 2005), to the extent that it’s virtually impossible to imagine design problems being tackled any other way (Dorst, 2006; Rowe, 1991).

While digital tools have improved production, architecture’s rationalist bias has constrained diversity and made architects insensitive to user experience (de Graft-Johnson, Manley, & Greed, 2003; Grosz, 2001). These cultural norms not only negatively impact communities but also constrain innovation (Page, 2008). However, it would be wrong to blame Design Science for architecture’s rational bias. Rationalism is but one of four worldviews that have shaped architecture for millennia (Lawson, 1980; Rowe, 1991): (a) the rationalist paradigm, guided by mathematics; (b) the ecological paradigm, guided by science;(c) the technocratic paradigm, guided by engineering; and (d) the humanistic paradigm, guided by psychology (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Four paradigms of architecture

While there is considerable overlap between worldviews and design methods (Cross, 2007), professional divisions still dominate practice. The following review examines each four worldviews in detail. Then, a final synthesis of models is created to fuel communications between worldviews and harness the kind of citizen-led knowledge cities need to thrive and prosper.

Review summary

In reviewing the design literature, we found new modelling tools are increasingly making our buildings and cites more human. Many of these human-centred methods however are governed by the limits of the tool’s function, which place constraints on human knowledge and communication (Norman, 2005). In other words, we become tools of our own tools (Flusser, 1999; McLuhan, 1964; Thoreau, 2006). In the case of the design studio, specific technological revolutions have shaped how architects map, visualize, and create interactions between people and places (Dodds & Tavernor, 2002). Such radical shifts in practice confirm that design technologies, rather than influencing incremental change are totalitarian in their effects. It is perhaps not surprising such effects have, in many cases, resulted in the perceptual sensory capacities of people either overlooked (Bloomer, Moore, & Yudell, 1977) or ignored (Marble, 1988; Tschumi, 1994). This lack of technological convergence has come to standardize and ultimately constrain user experience. Such constraints are likely the result of four dominant paradigms that still continue to shape development and delivery of services.

The rationalist paradigm (mathematics-based)

Mathematical-based methods using CAD’s built-in geometric shape grammars enable architects to sharpen their design skills (Lawson, 2002) and increase production (Kalay, 2006). While more recent tools have amplified and exploited these capabilities, CAD nonetheless places a rationalist bias on architectural thinking and practice (Till, 2009). This bias has rendered most architects insensitive to more nuanced spatial aspects of the environmental such as building scale, land usage, and boundary conditions (Ratti, 2005). These digital advances have also outpaced any critical understanding of their psychophysiological effects (Cuomo & Sharif, 1989). As a result, geometric shape grammars still cast human-environment relations as standardized norms, failing to engage diverse populations in the creation of meaningful urban experiences (Gottdiener & Hutchison, 2010). The ambiguous ways people apply meaning to objects and environments (Hayles, 1993) implies shape grammars should only be used and interpreted in their original sense (Chomsky, 1968) i.e., as devices which specify language above all else (Krishnamurti & Stouffs, 1993) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: The rationalist paradigm (mathematics-based)

The ecological paradigm (science-based)

Science-based methods using reality mining tools enable architects to control entire systems, helping them accomplish in days what traditional methods would take months to achieve. While these tools have been useful in guiding architects towards more sustainable concerns, most of the top-down methods fail to account for the complexity and vulnerability of systems (Poynter, 2006). Over emphasis of system needs not only ignores the exponential rise of virtual communities (Herrmann, 2009) but also comes at the expense of individuals (Veltman, 2006) and the need for society to critique its own institutions (Ryan & Bohman, 1998). Bottom-up crowdsourcing systems that gather crowdsourced data from mobile smartphones has created a new citizen-led participatory sensing paradigm for measuring urban spaces (Kanhere, 2011). Despite its ability to gather citizen data, crowdsourcing remains poor at evaluating and controlling data or providing citizen feedback (Brabham, 2011). Middle-out smart city apps, which fuse the best features of top-down (centralized) and bottom-up (decentralized) methods allows data to be accessed and used by many agents at different times and places. Greatly improving the delivery of responsive city services (Figure 4).

Figure 4: The ecological paradigm (science-based methods)

The technocratic paradigm (engineering-based)

Engineering-based methods using testing suites enable architects to evaluate complex interactions between people, objects, and places. The problem with these methods is they tend to encourage a technocratic bias that favours mechanistic function over humanistic concerns. Recent replacement of physical testing suites with CAE programs has amplified this technocratic bias, creating knowledge gaps between people and environments. These knowledge gaps are rendered visible in the many of the post-occupancy studies showing conflicts between idealized functional models and end-user comfort (Purves, 2002). The fact CAE tools are too complex to use during vital early design stages (Oxman, 2008) mean they tend to be poor generators of ideas (Charlesworth, 2007). These findings support the reality that computers are language-bound and that thinkers who rely on them are often utilizing that small part of their brain that is like a computer (McKim, 1972, p.22). As Koestler prophetically observed: “Language can become a screen which stands between the thinker and reality. This is the reason that true creativity often starts where language ends” (Koestler, 1964) (Figure 5).

Figure 5: The technocratic paradigm (engineering-based)

The humanistic paradigm (psychology-based)

Psychology-based methods using human-centric data enables architects to build user interfaces into systems to ensure they are responsive and meaningful. While this humanistic bias is long overdue, cynical applications manipulate design features to fuel erratic consumer behaviour (Michon et al., 2005). In projects that harness features to support wellbeing, studies show different people respond to different features in different ways (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Kellert & Wilson, 1995; Lynch, 1960; Ulrich, 1984). It follows that buildings and cities design must incorporate more flexible (i.e., agile) elements beyond the visual, to ensure multisensory experiences can be adapted to user needs (Lathia, Quercia, & Crowcroft, 2012). The ability of citizens to proactively create urban experiences with user-centred tools offers architects the unique opportunity to fuel urban engagement at every turn. Thus, improving the overall development and delivery of responsive city services. These benefits are also likely to spark healthy brain plasticity not only in the minds of people (Damasio, 1994; Varela, Thompson, & Rosch, 1999) but also across broader realms of architectural practice (Figure 6).

Figure 6: The humanistic paradigm

Agile Urbanism: a citizen-led blueprint for smart cities

The idea that people who use public spaces and buildings should have a say in designing them is central to the notion of building smart communities (Deakin & Al Waer, 2011). Citizen-led initiatives were put forward in a Green Paper titled Open Sourced Planning in an effort by Britain’s Conservative Party “to rebuild Britain’s broken economy” (Conservative Party UK, 2012). This paper proposed a shift away from centralized regional planning towards decentralized local community development, where public design workshops (charrettes) could fast-track design proposals. Despite the potential of such radical decentralized planning to reinvigorate industry and society, our review found best design practices need to adopt a multi-layered approach. Any future proposal to build responsive urban services must therefore integrate such multi-layered design approaches into its structure.

To ensure organizations and architects make the kinds of corporeal investments our communities and cities need to thrive, a more cohesive model is required. Ideally, one that mitigates biases by helping designers choose the right tools for the right tasks. One useful solution, based on our review, is to integrate multiple design paradigms into one urban design continuum. At the left of the spectrum determinism is the norm (i.e., cause and effect can be analysed, predicted, understood). At the right end of the spectrum, non-determinism is the norm (i.e., cause and effect are unclear, thus prediction and control are virtually impossible). At the centre, real-time feedback tools enable rapid response to change. We call this continuum model the Agile Urbanism Blueprint (AUG) (Figure 7):

Figure 7: Agile Urbanism Blueprint (AUB)
  1. At the left side of the blueprint, top-down algorithmic methods apply. Rule-based machine learning technologies such as CAD/CAE, generative apps, and data mining help architects harness “machine intelligence” to solve rather simple problems that can be clearly defined and reduced to their constituent parts.
  2. At the right side of the blueprint, bottom-up humanistic methods apply. Human-based tools such as experience maps, crowdsourcing apps, and reality mining help architects harness “human intelligence” to solve volatile, unpredictable, complex, ambiguous (VUCA) problems that lie beyond their prediction or control.
  3. At the centre of the blueprint, middle-out synthetic methods apply. Real-time feedback tools such as brain-computer interfaces fuse top-down and bottom-up design methods, ensuring future urban infrastructures respond and adapt to rapid change.

The AUB’s simple aim is to help architects and urban planners understand that certain design tools and methods are only effective in certain scenarios. For example, in VUCA contexts such as cities, neither rationalist, technocratic, ecological, or humanistic design methods alone can map interactions fast or accurately enough to solve problems. In this VUCA context, a more optimal solution would be to create an urban infrastructure that harnesses intelligence amplification with the support of brain-machine interfaces and wearable sensors. These new tools may help architects and planners collect powerful user data sets and build reflexive solutions that adapt and change to real-time events. Such tools also have the potential to boost levels of user engagement and interaction in citizen-led urbanism. Ultimately rendering our cities, communities, and democracy smarter and more resilient to future challenges.

The read the full article please visit Academia.edu

Author

Grant Munro is director of London’s Digital Health Advisory Board and honorary academic at the National Institute of Health Innovation, University of Auckland, New Zealand. He is cofounder of the Innovation Party, Britain’s first political movement dedicated to fostering agile governance through peer-to-peer networks. His health blogs Shockism.com and Luman.life focus on charting frontier advances in digital health to help people get the most from life. He can be reached at Medium, Twitter, Facebook, GrantMunro.com or via email at hello@grantmunro.com.

References

Agrest, D. I. (1991). Architecture from without: theoretical framings for a critical practice: MIT Press.

Alexander, C. (1964). Notes on the synthesis of form: Harvard University Press.

Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1977). A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction: Oxford University Press.

Allen, B., Curless, B., & Popovic, Z. (2004). Exploring the space of human body shapes: data-driven synthesis under anthropometric control. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Conference on Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering. SEA International.

Antonovsky, A. (1996). The salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion. Health promotion international, 11(1), 11–18.

Aranda-Mena, G., Crawford, J., Chevez, A., & Froese, T. (2009). Building information modelling demystified: does it make business sense to adopt BIM? International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 2(3), 419–434.

Archer, L. B. (1970). An overview of the structure of the design process. Emerging methods in environmental design and planning, 285–307.

Armour, G. C., & Buffa, E. S. (1963). A heuristic algorithm and simulation approach to relative location of facilities. Management Science, 294–309.

Auger, B. (1972). The architect and the computer: Pall Mall Press.

Banham, R. (1996). Theory and design in the first machine age: MIT Press.

Bazjanac, V. (2004). Virtual building environments (VBE): applying information modeling to buildings. Paper presented at the ECPPM 2004, 8–10 September 2004, Istanbul.

Benjamin, W. (2008). The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction: Penguin UK.

Bloomer, K. C., Moore, C. W., & Yudell, B. (1977). Body, memory and architecture. New Haven ; London: Yale University Press.

Borck, C. (2007). Communicating the modern body: Fritz Kahn’s popular images of human physiology as an industrialized world. Canadian Journal of Communication, 32(3).

Brabham, D. C. (2011). Crowdsourcing: a model for leveraging online communities. 1–22.

Brumbaugh, R. S. (1992). Western philosophic systems and their cyclic transformations: Southern Illinois University Press.

Buchanan, R. (2001). Design research and the new learning. Design Issues, 17(4), 3–23.

Bullinger, H.-J., Bauer, W., Wenzel, G., & Blach, R. (2010). Towards user centred design (UCD) in architecture based on immersive virtual environments. Computers in Industry, 61(4), 372–379.

Burns, C., Cottam, H., Vanstone, C., & Winhall, J. (2006). Transformation design. Retrieved from Design Coucil:

Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2011). Smart cities in Europe. Journal of urban technology, 18(2), 65–82.

Card, S. K., Moran, S. K., & Newell, A. (1983). The psychology of human-computer interaction: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carroll, J. M. (1997). Human-computer interaction: psychology as a science of design. Annual review of psychology, 48(1), 61–83.

Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring: Houghton Mifflin.

Case, K., Hussain, A., Marshall, R., Summerskill, S., & Gyi, D. E. (2015). Digital human modelling and the ageing workforce. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 3694–3701.

Charlesworth, C. (2007). Student use of virtual and physical modelling in design development an experiment in 3D design education. The Design Journal, 10(1), 35–45.

Chomsky, N. (1968). Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton.

Chu, K. (2006). Metaphysics of genetic architecture and computation. Architectural Design, 76(4), 38–45. doi:10.1002/ad.292

Conservative Party UK. (2012). Open Source Planning Green Paper. Retrieved from http://www.cgms.co.uk/bulletin/Conservative%20Party%20Planning%20Paper.pdf

Cook, P., Llewellyn-Jones, R., & Norment, K. (1991). New spirit in architecture: Rizzoli.

Corbusier, L. (1980). Modulor I and II: Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Cross, N. (2007). From a design science to a design discipline: understanding designerly ways of knowing and thinking. In Design research now (pp. 41–54): Springer.

Cuff, D. (2001). Digital pedagogy: an essay. Architectural record(9), 200.

Cuomo, D. L., & Sharif, J. (1989). A study of human performance in computer‐aided architectural design. International Journal of Human‐Computer Interaction, 1(1), 69–107.

Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ Error: emotion, reason and the human brain: Penguin.

de Graft-Johnson, A., Manley, S., & Greed, C. (2003). Why do women leave architecture. RIBA/University of West of England Research Project. London, RIBA.

Deakin, M., & Al Waer, H. (2011). From intelligent to smart cities. Intelligent Buildings International, 3(3), 140–152.

Dempsey, P. G., Wogalter, M. S., & Hancock, P. A. (2000). What’s in a name? Using terms from definitions to examine the fundamental foundation of human factors and ergonomics science. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 1(1), 3–10.

Desa, U. (2014). World urbanization prospects, the 2011 revision. Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat.

Dodds, G., & Tavernor, R. (Eds.). (2002). Body and building: essays on the changing relation of body and architecture. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Doidge, N., & Bond, J. (2008). The brain that changes itself: Brilliance Audio.

Dorst, K. (2006). Design problems and design paradoxes. Design Issues, 22(3), 4–17.

Dourish, P. (2004). Where the action is: the foundations of embodied interaction: MIT Press.

Downing, F., & Flemming, U. (1981). The bungalows of Buffalo. Environment and Planning B, 8(3), 269–293.

Draper, S., & Norman, D. A. (1986). User centered system design: new perspectives on human-computer interaction: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Dreyfuss, H. (1955). Designing for People: Simon and Schuster.

Duarte, J. P. (2005). Towards the mass customization of housing: the grammar of Siza’s houses at Malagueira. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 32(3), 347–380.

Duffy, V. G. (2009). Handbook of digital human modeling: research for applied ergonomics and human factors engineering: CRC Press.

Dutta, P., Aoki, P. M., Kumar, N., Mainwaring, A., Myers, C., Willett, W., & Woodruff, A. (2009). Common sense: participatory urban sensing using a network of handheld air quality monitors. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 7th ACM conference on embedded networked sensor systems.

Eastman, C. M., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., & Liston, K. (2008). BIM handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, architects, engineers, contractors, and fabricators: John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Engberg-Pedersen, A., & Eliasson, O. (2008). Studio Olafur Eliasson: an encyclopedia. Köln; London: Taschen.

Evans, R. (1995). The projective cast: architecture and its three geometries. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Feliziani, C., Andrighettoni, P., Sociali, S. A., di Trento, C., Turra, E., & Trento, A. (2014). Smart citizens for healthy cities. Paper presented at the IEEE Smart Cities Initiative, Trento, Italy.

Fitch, J. M. (1975). American building: the environmental forces that shape it: Schocken Books.

Flusser, V. (1999). The shape of things: a philosophy of design: Reaktion Books.

Frampton, K. (1993). Toward a critical regionalism: six points for an architecture of resistance. Postmodernism: a reader, 268.

Frederikse, M. E., Lu, A., Aylward, E., Barta, P., & Pearlson, G. (1999). Sex differences in the inferior parietal lobule. Cerebral Cortex, 9(8), 896–901.

Fuller, R. B., & McHale, J. (1967). World Design Science Decade, 1965–1975: World Resources Inventory.

Fuller, R. B., & Snyder, J. (1969). Operating manual for spaceship earth: Southern Illinois University Press.

Gage, J., & Goethe, J. W. (1980). Goethe on art: University of California Press.

Gaver, W. W. (1992). The affordances of media spaces for collaboration: Rank Xerox, EuroPARC.

Gibson, J. J. (1977). Perceiving, acting, and knowing: toward an ecological psychology, chapter The Theory of Affordances: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Hillsdale, NJ.

Gins, M., & Arakawa, G. (2002). Architectural body: University of Alabama Press.

Glanville, R. (1999). Researching design and designing research. Design Issues, 15(2).

Gottdiener, M., & Hutchison, R. (2010). The new urban sociology (4 ed.): Routledge.

Green, P. E., & Srinivasan, V. (1978). Conjoint analysis in consumer research: issues and outlook. Journal of consumer research, 103–123.

Grosz, E. A. (2001). Architecture from the outside: essays on virtual and real space: MIT Press.

Hall, E. T. (1959). The silent language: Doubleday New York.

Hayles, N. K. (1993). Virtual bodies and flickering signifiers. In (Vol. 66, pp. 69–91): MIT Press.

Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and Time (Revised ed.): HarperCollins Publishers.

Herrmann, T. (2009). Systems design with the socio-technical walkthrough. Handbook of research on socio-technical design and social networking systems, 336–351.

Hight, C. (2008). Architectural principles in the age of cybernetics: Psychology Press.

Hillier, B. (1996). Space is the machine: Cambridge University Press.

Howard, E. (1902). Garden cities of to-morrow. London: Swan Sonnenschein.

Humphrey, N. (2002). The mind made flesh: essays from the frontiers of psychology and evolution: Oxford University Press.

Husserl, E. G. (1970). The crisis of European sciences and transcendental phenomenology: An introduction to phenomenological philosophy: Northwestern University Press.

Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2009). Our bodies, our minds, our cultures, our “selves”: implications of affective and social neuroscience for educational theory. Educational Philosophy and Theory.

Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities: Vintage.

Johnston, P., & Bailey, N. (1996). The function of the oblique: the architecture of Claude Parent and Paul Virilio, 1963–1969: Architectural Association.

Jones, J. C. (1992). Design methods (2 ed.): Wiley & Sons.

Kalay, Y. E. (2006). The impact of information technology on design methods, products and practices. Design Studies, 27(3), 357–380.

Kanhere, S. S. (2011). Participatory sensing: crowdsourcing data from mobile smartphones in urban spaces. Paper presented at the 12th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Data Management (MDM).

Kano, N., Seraku, N., Takahashi, F., & Tsuji, S. (1984). Attractive quality and must-be quality. The Journal of the Japanese Society for Quality Control, 14(2), 39–48.

Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: a psychological perspective: Cambridge University Press.

Karwowski, W. (2005). Ergonomics and human factors: the paradigms for science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems. Ergonomics, 48(5), 436–463.

Kellert, S. R., & Wilson, E. O. (1995). The biophilia hypothesis: Island Press.

Kim, S., Robson, C., Zimmerman, T., Pierce, J., & Haber, E. M. (2011). Creek watch: pairing usefulness and usability for successful citizen science. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.

Kimbell, L. (2009a). Beyond design thinking: design-as-practice and designs-in-practice. Paper presented at the CRESC Conference, Manchester.

Kimbell, L. (2009b). The turn to service design. In G. Julier & L. Moor (Eds.), Design and Creativity: Policy, Management and Practice. Oxford, Berg.

Kimbell, L. (2011). Designing for service as one way of designing services. International Journal of Design, 5(2), 41–52.

Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation: Penguin.

Kolarevic, B. (2003). Architecture in the digital age: design and manufacturing: Spon Press.

Kolatan, S., & MacDonald, B. (2000). Excursus Chimera? Architectural Design, 70(3), 70–77.

Koning, H., & Eizenberg, J. (1981). The language of the prairie: Frank Lloyd Wright’s prairie houses. Environment and Planning B, 8(3), 295–323.

Kotler, P. (1973). Atmospherics as a marketing tool. Journal of retailing, 49(4), 48–64.

Kracauer, S., & Levin, T. Y. (1987). Cult of distraction: on Berlin’s picture palaces. New German Critique(40), 91–96.

Krippendorff, K. (2006). The semantic turn: Taylor & Francis.

Krishnamurti, R., & Stouffs, R. (1993). Spatial grammars: motivation, comparison, and new results. CAAD Futures ’93, 57–74.

Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2 ed.): University of Chicago Press.

Küller, R. (1975). Semantisk miljöbeskrivning (SMB). Stockholm.: AB Liber Tryck.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: the embodied mind and Its challenge to Western thought: Basic Books.

Lang, J., & Moleski, W. (2010). Functionalism revisited: architectural theory and practice and the behavioral sciences: Ashgate Publishing.

Lanier, J. (2011). You are not a gadget: a manifesto: Vintage.

Lathia, N., Quercia, D., & Crowcroft, J. (2012). The hidden image of the city: sensing community well-being from urban mobility. In J. Kay, P. Lukowicz, P. Tokuda, & A. Krüger (Eds.), Pervasive Computing (pp. 91–98). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Lawson, B. (1980). How designers think: the design process demystified: Architectural Press London.

Lawson, B. (2002). CAD and creativity: does the computer really help? Leonardo, 35(3), 327–331.

Lawson, B. (2005). Oracles, draughtsmen, and agents: the nature of knowledge and creativity in design and the role of IT. Automation in Construction, 14(3), 383–391.

Lea, R., Blackstock, M., Giang, N., & Vogt, D. (2015). Smart cities: engaging users and developers to foster innovation ecosystems. Paper presented at the Adjunct Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers.

Li, A. I. K. (1999). Expressing parametric dependence in shape grammars, with an example from traditional Chinese architecture. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the fourth conference of the Association of computer aided architectural design research in Asia (CAADRIA).

Luke, R., Clement, A., Terada, R., Bortolussi, D., Booth, C., Brooks, D., & Christ, D. (2004). The promise and perils of a participatory approach to developing an open source community learning network. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the eighth conference on Participatory design: Artful integration: interweaving media, materials and practices-Volume 1.

Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city: The MIT Press.

Lynn, G. (2000). Greg Lynn: embryological houses. In AD: Contemporary Processes in Architecture, 70(3), 26–35.

Mace, R. L., Hardie, G. J., & Place, J. P. (1990). Accessible environments: toward universal design: Center for Accessible Housing, North Carolina State University.

Maisonneuve, N., Stevens, M., Niessen, M. E., Hanappe, P., & Steels, L. (2009). Citizen noise pollution monitoring. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Social Networks: Making Connections between Citizens, Data and Government.

Manasseh, C., Ahern, K., & Sengupta, R. (2009). The connected traveler: using location and personalization on mobile devices to improve transportation. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Location and the Web.

Mandelbrot, B. B. (1983). The fractal geometry of nature. In. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Marble, S. (1988). Architecture and body. New York: Rizzoli.

Margolin, V. (2000). Building a design research community. Design Plus Research, 2–6.

McGilchrist, I. (2009). The master and his emissary: the divided brain and the making of the western world: Yale University Press.

McHarg, I. L. (1969). Design with nature: John Wiley & Sons.

McKeon, R. P., & Mann, T. (1954). Thought, action, and passion: University of Chicago Press.

McKim, R. H. (1972). Experiences in visual thinking: Brooks Cole.

McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding media: the extensions of man: McGraw Hill.

Meadati, P., Irizarry, J., & Akhnoukh, A. K. (2010). BIM and RFID integration: a pilot study. Advancing and Integrating Construction Education, Research and Practice, 570–578.

Meller, H. (1994). Patrick Geddes: social evolutionist and city planner: Routledge.

Menking, W. (2009). Editorial: core curriculum. The Architect's Newspaper.

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of perception: Routeledge & Kegan Paul.

Michon, R., Chebat, J.-C., & Turley, L. W. (2005). Mall atmospherics: the interaction effects of the mall environment on shopping behavior. Journal of Business Research, 58(5), 576–583.

Mitchell, W. J. (2001). Vitruvius redux: formalized design synthesis in architecture. In Formal engineering design synthesis (pp. 1–19): Cambridge University Press.

Mizuno, S., & Akao, Y. (1978). Quality function deployment. JUSE, Tokyo.

Moseley, L. (1963). A rational design theory for planning buildings based on the analysis and solution of circulation problems. Architects’ Journal, 11, 525–537.

Mumford, L. (1934). Technics and civilization: Harcourt, Brace and World.

Nagamachi, M. (1995). Kansei engineering: a new ergonomic consumer-oriented technology for product development. International Journal of industrial ergonomics, 15(1), 3–11.

Negroponte, N. (1970). The architecture machine: towards a more human environment. MA, Cambridge: MIT Press.

Negroponte, N. (1975). Soft architecture machines: MIT Press.

Neufert, E., & Neufert, P. (2012). Architects’ data: Wiley.

Neutra, R. J. (1954). Survival through design: Oxford University Press.

Nickerson, J. V., Sakamoto, Y., & Yu, L. (2011). Structures for creativity: the crowdsourcing of design. Paper presented at the CHI Workshop on Crowdsourcing and Human Computation.

Nietzsche, F. (1967). The Birth of Tragedy, trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York.

Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological review, 108(2), 291.

Norberg-Schulz, C. (1971). Existence, space and architecture: Studio Vista London, UK.

Norman, D. A. (2005). Human-centered design considered harmful. Interactions, 12(4), 14–19.

Onnela, J.-P., & Reed-Tsochas, F. (2010). Spontaneous emergence of social influence in online systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(43), 18375–18380. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914572107

Onuma, K. (2009). From abundance to scarcity: a strategy for the 21st century building industry. Doing more with less while creating value. Architecture and Society 14(18), 158–170.

Osgood, C. E. (1957). The measurement of meaning (Vol. 47): University of Illinois Press.

Oxman, R. (2008). Digital architecture as a challenge for design pedagogy: theory, knowledge, models and medium. Design Studies, 29(2), 99–120.

Page, S. E. (2008). The difference: how the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies: Princeton University Press.

Paglia, C. (1990). Sexual personae: art and decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson: Random House.

Pallasmaa, J. (1996). The eyes of the skin: architecture and the senses: John Wiley and Sons.

Pask, G. (1976). Styles and strategies of learning. British journal of educational psychology, 46(2), 128–148.

Pérez-Gómez, A., Gómez, A. P., & Pelletier, L. (2000). Architectural representation and the perspective hinge. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Postman, N. (1993). Technopoly: the surrender of culture to technology: Vintage.

Poynter, J. (2006). The human experiment: two years and twenty minutes inside Biosphere 2: Basic Books.

Purves, G. (2002). Healthy living centres: Routledge.

Ratti, C. (2005). The lineage of the line: space syntax parameters from the analysis of urban DEMs. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design.

Robert, G. B. (2007). Bringing user experience to healthcare improvement: the concepts, methods and practices of experience-based design: Radcliffe Publishing.

Robertson, B. F., & Radcliffe, D. F. (2009). Impact of CAD tools on creative problem solving in engineering design. Computer-Aided Design, 41(3), 136–146.

Roudavski, S. (2009). Towards morphogenesis in architecture. International journal of architectural computing, 7(3), 345–374.

Rowe, P. G. (1991). Design thinking: MIT Press.

Ruskin, J. (1865). The seven lamps of architecture: Wiley.

Ryan, A., & Bohman, J. (1998). Systems theory in social science. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Version, 1(1998), 8429–8432.

Sakaki, T., Okazaki, M., & Matsuo, Y. (2010). Earthquake shakes Twitter users: real-time event detection by social sensors. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 19th international conference on world wide web.

Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life: McGraw-Hill.

Shneiderman, B. (1982). The future of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation. Behaviour and Information Technology, 1(3), 237–256.

Shostack, G. L. (1982). How to design a service. European Journal of Marketing, 16(1), 49–63.

Shostack, G. L. (1984). Designing services that deliver. Harvard business review, 62(1), 133–139.

Simon, H. A. (1969). The science of the artificial: MIT Press.

Soleri, P. (1987). Arcosanti: an urban laboratory: VTI Press.

Souder, J. J., & Clark, W. E. (1963). Computer technology: new tool for planning. AIA Journal, 97–106.

Sperry, R. W. (1968). Hemisphere deconnection and unity in conscious awareness. American Psychologist, 23(10), 723.

Stankos, M., & Schwarz, B. (2007). Evidence-based design in healthcare: a theoretical dilemma. Interdisciplinary Design and Research e-Journal, 1(1).

Stiny, G., & Gips, J. (1972). Shape grammars and the generative specification of painting and sculpture. Information processing, 71, 1460–1465.

Stiny, G., & Mitchell, W. J. (1978). The Palladian grammar. Environment and Planning B, 5(1), 5–18.

Stiny, G., & Mitchell, W. J. (1980). The grammar of paradise: on the generation of Mughul gardens. Environment and Planning B, 7(2), 209–226.

Sutherland, I. E. (1964). Sketchpad: a man-machine graphical communication system. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.uk/search?client=safari&rls=10_7_4&q=Sketchpad+A+man+machine+graphical+communication+system&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&redir_esc=&ei=wTaKUejfKsmFO7urgfAI

Tallis, R. (2011). Aping Mankind: Neuromania, Darwinitis and the misrepresentation of humanity: Acumen.

Taylor, F. W. (1911). The principles of scientific management: UK: Harper and Brothers.

Temkin, B. (2010). Mapping the customer journey. Forrester Research.

Terzidis, K. (2006). Algorithmic architecture: Architectural Press.

Th’ng, R., & Davies, M. (1975). SPACES: An integrated suite of computer programs for accommodation scheduling, layout generation and appraisal of schools. Computer-Aided Design, 7(2), 112–118.

Thompson, D. W. (1942). On growth and form: a new edition (2 ed.): Cambridge University Press.

Thoreau, H. D. (2006). Walden: Yale University Press.

Till, J. (2009). Architecture Depends: MIT Press.

Townsend, A. M. (2013). Smart cities: big data, civic hackers, and the quest for a new utopia: WW Norton & Company.

Tschumi, B. (1994). Architecture and disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ulrich, R. S. (1984). View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science (New York, N.Y.), 224(4647), 420–421.

Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1999). The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience: MIT Press.

Vargo, S. L. (2006). The service-dominant logic of marketing: dialog, debate, and directions: ME Sharpe.

Veltman, K. H. (2006). Understanding new media: augmented knowledge and culture: University of Calgary Press.

Venturi, R. (1977). Complexity and contradiction in architecture (Vol. 1): Harry N. Abrams.

Wegner, P. (1976). Research paradigms in computer science. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Software engineering.

Weizenbaum, J. (1976). Computer power and human reason — from judgment to calculation: WH Freeman.

Welter, V. M., & Whyte, I. B. (2003). Biopolis: Patrick Geddes and the city of life: MIT Press.

Whitehead, B., & El’Dars, M. Z. (1964). An approach to the optimum layout of single storey buildings. Architect’s Journal, 139(25), 1373–1380.

Whyte, W. H. (1956). The organization man: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Witkin, H. A., Moore, C. A., Goodenough, D. R., & Cox, P. W. (1977). Field-dependent and field-independent cognitive styles and their educational implications. Review of educational research, 47(1), 1–64.

Yeang, K. (1996). The skyscraper bioclimatically considered: a design primer: Academy Editions London.

Young, I. (2008). Mental models: aligning design strategy with human behavior: Rosenfeld Media.

Yuan, W., Guan, D., Huh, E.-N., & Lee, S. (2013). Harness human sensor networks for situational awareness in disaster reliefs: a survey. IETE Technical Review, 30(3), 240–247.

Zeisel, J. (1984). Inquiry by design: tools for environment-behavior research (Vol. 5): Cambridge University Press.

Zumthor, P. (1998). Thinking architecture: Lars Müller.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here